Pages

Advertisement

Friday, July 6, 2007

Programming Languages

Array languages

See also: :Category:Array_programming_languages

Array programming (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher dimensional arrays.

* A+
* Analytica
* APL
* F
* FISh
* Fortran 90 and later versions
* IDL
* J
* K
* MATLAB
* Octave
* NESL
* Nial
* PDL
* ZPL
* SAC

Aspect-oriented languages

* AspectC++
* AspectJ
* CaesarJ
* Common Lisp
* Compose*
* JAsCo (and AWED)
* ObjectTeams

Assembly languages

See also: :Category:Assembly languages

Assembly languages directly correspond to a machine language (see below) in order to allow machine code instructions to be written in a form understandable by humans. Assembly languages allow programmers to use symbolic addresses which are later converted to absolute addresses by the assembler. Most assemblers also allow for macros and symbolic constants.

* ASEM-51 [1]
* a56 (for Motorola DSP56000 DSPs, DSP56k series)
* AKI (AvtoKod "Inzhener", "Engineer's Autocode" for Minsk family of computers)
* ASCENT (ASsembler for CENTral Processor Unit of Control Data Corporation computer systems pre-COMPASS)
* ASPER (ASsembler for PERipheral Processor Units of Control Data Corporation computer systems pre-COMPASS)
* BAL (Basic AssembLer) - for IBM System/360 and later mainframe systems
* C-- (name used by a few languages that bring C language closer to Assembly)
* COMPASS (COMPrehensive ASSembler)
* D (multiparadigm curly-brace language with built-in inline assembler)
* Emu8086 [2] (x86 assembler and Intel's 8086 microprocessor emulator)
* EDTASM (Microsoft editor/assembler for Motorola 6809 on the Color Computer)
* FAP (FORTRAN Assembly Program, for IBM 709, 7090, 7094 mainframes)
* FASM (Flat Assembler; IA-32, IA-64)
* GAS (GNU Assembler)
* HLA (High Level Assembly)
* HLASM (High Level Assembler, for mainframes)
* Linoleum (for cross platform use)
* MACRO-11 (for DEC PDP-11)
* MACRO-20 (for DEC DECSYSTEM-20)
* MACRO-32 (for DEC VAX)
* MASM (Microsoft Macro Assembler)
* MI (Machine Interface, compile-time intermediate language)
* MIPS ( for MIPS architecture) Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages
* Motorolla 68k Assembly ( for Motorola 68k ) Assembly Language for Motorolla 68k family of CPUs
* NASM (Netwide Assembler)
* NEAT (National's Electronic Autocoder Technique), for NCR computers, evolved into NEAT/3
* PAL-III (for DEC PDP-8)
* PASM (for Parrot virtual machine)
* RosAsm (32 bit Assembler; The Bottom Up Assembler)
* Sphinx C-- (mixes Assembly commands with C-like structures)
* SSK (Sistema Simvolicheskogo Kodirovaniya, or "System of symbolic coding") for Minsk family of computers
* TASM (Turbo Assembler, Borland)

Authoring languages

* Bigwig (web design language)
* Coursewriter
* PILOT
* TUTOR

Command line interface languages

Command line interface (CLI) languages are also called batch languages, or job control languages. Examples:

* 4DOS (extended command-line shell for IBM PCs)
* bash (the "Bourne-Again" shell from GNU/FSF)
* Ch (C-compatible shell)
* CHAIN (Datapoint)
* CLIST (MVS Command List)
* csh (C-like shell from Bill Joy at UC Berkeley)
* DCL DIGITAL Command Language - standard CLI language for VMS (DEC, Compaq, HP)
* DOS batch language (standard CLI/batch language for the IBM PC running DR-DOS, MS-DOS, or PC-DOS before Windows)
o EA_QB_Command
* EXEC
* EXEC 2
* JCL (punch card-oriented batch control language for IBM/360 family mainframes)
* ksh (a standard Unix shell, written by David Korn)
* REXX
* sh (the standard Unix shell, written by Stephen Bourne)
* Winbatch (Windows batch file language)
* Windows PowerShell (Microsoft .NET-based CLI)
* zsh (a Unix shell)

Compiled languages

These are languages typically processed by compilers, though theoretically any language can be compiled or interpreted. See also compiled language.

* Ada (multi-purpose language)
* ALGOL (extremely influential language design. The second high level language compiler.)
o SMALL Machine Algol Like Language
* BASIC (some dialects, including the first version of Dartmouth BASIC)
* C (one of the most widely-used procedural programming languages)
* C++
* C# (compiled into Intermediate Language bytecode)
* CLEO (Clear Language for Expressing Orders) used the compiler for the British Leo computers
* CLush (Lush)
* COBOL
* Common Lisp
* Corn
* Curl
* D
* Delphi (Borland's Object Pascal development system)
* DIBOL (Digital Interactive Business Oriented Language)
* Eiffel (object-oriented language developed by Bertrand Meyer)
o Sather
o Ubercode
* Forth (professional systems, like VFX and SwiftForth)
* Fortran (the first high level, compiled, language, from IBM, John Backus, et al)
* Java (originally from Sun Microsystems; usually compiled into JVM bytecode although true native-code compiled versions exist)
* JOVIAL
* Nemerle (compiled into Intermediate Language bytecode)
* Objective-C
* Pascal (most implementations)
* ppC++
* Scheme (some implementations, e.g. Gambit)
* ML
o Standard ML
+ Alice
o Ocaml
* Turing
* Urq
* Visual Basic (from Microsoft)
* Visual Foxpro
* Visual Prolog
* WinDev

Concurrent languages

See also: :Category:Concurrent_programming_languages

Message passing languages provide language constructs for concurrency. The predominant paradigm for concurrency in mainstream languages such as Java is shared memory concurrency based on monitors. Concurrent languages that make use of message passing have generally been inspired by CSP or the π-calculus, but have had little commercial success, except for Ada and Erlang. Ada is a multipurpose language and concurrent programming is only one option available.

* Ada (multi-purpose language)
* Afnix – concurrent access to data is protected automatically (previously called Aleph, but unrelated to Alef)
* Alef – concurrent language with threads and message passing, used for systems programming in early versions of Plan 9 from Bell Labs
* ChucK – domain specific programming language for audio, precise control over concurrency and timing
* Cilk – a concurrent C
* Cω – C Omega, a research language extending C#, uses asynchronous communication
* Concurrent Pascal (by Brinch-Hansen)
* Corn
* Curry
* E – uses promises, ensures deadlocks cannot occur
* Eiffel (through the SCOOP mechanism, Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Computation)
* Erlang – uses asynchronous message passing with nothing shared
* Java
o Join Java – concurrent language based on Java
o X10
* Join-calculus
* Joule – dataflow language, communicates by message passing
* Limbo – relative of Alef, used for systems programming in Inferno (operating system)
* MultiLisp – Scheme variant extended to support parallelism
* occam – influenced heavily by Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP).
o occam-π – a modern variant of occam, which incorporates ideas from Milner's π-calculus
* Oz – multiparadigm language, supports shared-state and message-passing concurrency, and futures
o Mozart Programming System – multiplatform Oz
* Pict – essentially an executable implementation of Milner's π-calculus
* SALSA – actor language with token-passing, join, and first-class continuations for distributed computing over the Internet
* SR – research language

Curly-bracket languages

See also: :Category:Curly bracket programming languages

The curly bracket programming languages have a syntax that defines statement blocks using the "curly bracket" or "brace" characters { and }. All these languages descend from or are strongly influenced by C. Examples of curly-bracket languages include:

* ABCL/c+
* Alef
o Limbo
* AutoHotkey
* AWK
* BCPL
* C - developed circa 1970 at Bell Labs
* C shell (csh)
* C++
* C#
* Ch - embeddable C/C++ interpreter
* ChucK - audio programming language
* Cilk - concurrent C for multithreaded parallel programming
* Coyote - safer C variant to lower the likelihood of some common errors, e.g., buffer overflows
* Cyclone - safer C variant
* D - C/C++ variant
* DINO
* E
* ECMAScript
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript
o JScript
o MDMscript
* Frink
* ICI
* Java
o Groovy
o Join Java
o X10
* LPC
* Nemerle - combines C# and ML features, provides syntax extension capabilities
* Perl
* PHP
* Pico
* Pike
* ppC++
* Suneido
* SuperCollider
* TorqueScript
* UnrealScript
* Windows PowerShell (Microsoft .NET-based CLI)
* Yorick

Dataflow languages

Dataflow languages rely on a (usually visual) representation of the flow of data to specify the program. Frequently used for reacting to discrete events or for processing streams of data. Examples of dataflow languages include:

* Hartmann pipelines
* G (used in LabVIEW)
* Max
* Prograph
* Pure data
* VEE
* VisSim

Data-oriented languages

Data-oriented languages provide powerful ways of searching and manipulating the relations that have been described as entity relationship tables which map one set of things into other sets. Examples of data-oriented languages include:

* Clarion
* Clipper (programming language)
* dBase a relational database access language
* M (an ANSI standard general purpose language with specializations for database work.)
* SPARQL
* SQL
* Tutorial D, see also The Third Manifesto
* Visual Foxpro native rdbms engine, object oriented, functional, RAD
* WebQL

Data-structured languages

See also: :Category:Data-structured programming languages

Data-structured languages are those where logic is structured in ways similar to their data. Such languages are generally well suited to reflection and introspection. There are three main types:

* Array-based
* List-based
* Stack-based

Assembly languages which statically link data inline with instructions can also be considered data-structured, in the most primitive way.

Declarative languages

See also: :Category:Declarative programming languages

Declarative languages describe a problem rather than defining a solution. Declarative programming stands in contrast to imperative programming via imperative programming languages, where serial orders (imperatives) are given to a computer. In addition to the examples given just below, all (pure) functional and logic-based programming languages are also declarative. In fact, "functional" and "logical" constitute the usual subcategories of the declarative category.

* ABSET
* Analytica
* Lustre
* MetaPost
* Prolog
* SQL
* XSL Transformations

Esoteric languages

An esoteric programming language is a programming language designed as a test of the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, or as a joke.

* Befunge
* Brainfuck
* Chef
* FALSE
* INTERCAL
* Shakespeare
* Whitespace
* Malbolge
* Lolcode
* merd

Extension languages

Extension programming languages are languages intended to be embedded into another program and used to harness its features in extension scripts.

* AutoLISP (specific to AutoCAD)
* CAL
* Guile
* Visual Basic for Applications
* Lua

etc.)

* Python (Maya and other 3-D animation packages)
* REXX
* Tcl

Fourth-generation languages

Fourth-generation programming languages are high-level languages built around database systems. They are generally used in commercial environments.

* ABAP
* ADMINS
* BuildProfessional
* CorVision
* CSC's GraphTalk
* Easytrieve report generator (now CA-Easytrieve Plus)
* Focus
* GEMBASE
* Informix-4GL / Aubit-4GL
* LINC
* MAPPER (Unisys/Sperry) now part of BIS
* MARK-IV (Sterling/Informatics) now VISION:BUILDER of CA
* Oracle Express 4GL
* Revolution (not based on a database; still, the goal is to work at a higher level of abstraction than 3GLs)
* SAS
* Today
* Ubercode (VHLL, or very high level language)
* Uniface (programming language)
* Visual DataFlex
* Visual Foxpro

Functional languages

See also: :Category:Functional languages

Functional programming languages define programs and subroutines as mathematical functions. Many so-called functional languages are "impure", containing imperative features. Not surprisingly, many of these languages are tied to mathematical calculation tools. Functional languages include:

* APL
* Charity
* Clean (purely functional)
* CodeSimian
* Curl
* Curry
* Erlang
* F#
* Haskell (purely functional)
o CAL
* J
* Joy
* Kite
* Lisp
o Common Lisp
o Dylan
o Logo
o Scheme
* Lush
* Maple
* Mathematica
* ML
o Standard ML
+ Alice
o Ocaml
* Nemerle
* Opal
* OPS5
* Poplog
* Q
* REFAL
* Spreadsheets

Interactive mode languages

Interactive mode languages act as a kind of shell: expressions or statements can be entered one at a time, and the result of their evaluation is seen immediately.

* BASIC (some dialects)
* Forth
* Haskell (with the GHCi interpreter)
* M (an ANSI standard general purpose language)
* Maple
* ML
* Python
* Ruby (with irb)
* Tcl (with the Tcl shell, tclsh)
* Windows PowerShell (Microsoft .NET-based CLI)

Interpreted languages

Interpreted languages are programming languages which programs may be executed from source code form, by an interpreter.

* APL
* AutoIt scripting language
* BASIC (some dialects)
* CodeSimian
* Databus (later versions added optional compiling)
* Eiffel (via "Melting Ice Technology" in EiffelStudio)
* Forth (interactive shell only; otherwise compiled to native or threaded code)
* Frink
* J
* Lisp (early versions, pre-1962, and some experimental ones; production Lisp systems are compilers, but many of them still provide an interpreter if needed)
* Lua (programming language)
* Lush
* M (an ANSI standard general purpose language)
* Maple
* Pascal (early implementations)
* PostScript
* Python
* REXX
* Spin programming language
* The SDYPAIKSSVDAYSF Programming Language
* TorqueScript
* VBScript
* Windows PowerShell (Microsoft .NET-based CLI)
* Some scripting languages (below)

Iterative languages

Languages built around or offering generators

* Aldor
* Alphard
* CLU
* Eiffel, through "agents"
* Icon
* IPL-v
* Lua
* Lush
* Python
* Sather

List-based languages – LISPs

List-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the list data structure.

* Joy
* Lisp
o Common Lisp
o Arc
o CodeSimian (like Lisp, but made with Java)
o Dylan
o Scheme
o Logo
* Lush
* Tcl
* TRAC

Little languages

Little languages serve a specialized problem domain.

* apply is a domain-specific language for image processing on parallel and conventional architectures
* awk can serve as a prototyping language for C, because the syntax is similar
* SQL has only a few keywords, and not all the constructs needed for a full programming language

Logic-based languages

See also: :Category:Logic programming languages

Logic-based languages specify a set of attributes that a solution must have, rather than a set of steps to obtain a solution. Examples:

* ALF
* Curry
* Janus
* Leda
* Oz
o Mozart Programming System a multiplatform Oz
* Poplog
* Prolog (formulates data and the program evaluation mechanism as a special form of mathematical logic called Horn logic and a general proving mechanism called logical resolution)
o Mercury (based on Prolog)
o Strawberry Prolog (standard Prolog with some extensions)
o Visual Prolog (object-oriented Prolog extension)
* ROOP

Machine languages

Machine languages are directly executable by a computer's CPU. They are typically formulated as bit patterns, usually represented in octal or hexadecimal. Each group of npatterns (often 1 or more bytes) causes the circuits in the CPU to execute one of the fundamental operations of the hardware. The activation of specific electrical inputs (eg, CPU package pins for microprocessors), and logical settings for CPU state values, control the processor's computation. Individual machine languages are processor specific and are not portable. They are (essentially) always defined by the CPU developer, not by 3rd parties. The symbolic version, the processor's assembly language, is also defined by the developer, in most cases. Since processors come in families which are based on a shared architecture, the same basic assembly language style can often be used for more than one CPU. Each of the following CPUs served as the basis for a family of processors:

* ARM
* Intel 80x86
* IBM 360
* Intel 8008/8080/8085
* MIPS R2000|R3000
* MOS Tech 6502
* Motorola 680x
* Motorola 680x0
* National 32032
* Power Architecture - (POWER and PowerPC)
* StrongARM
* Sun SPARC, UltraSPARC

Macro languages

See also: :Category:Macro programming languages

Macro languages embed small pieces of executable code inside a piece of free-form text.

* C preprocessor
* m4 (originally from AT&T, bundled with Unix)
* PHP
* SMX
* Stage 2

Scripting languages such as Tcl and ECMAScript (ActionScript, DMDScript, E4X, JavaScript, JScript) have been embedded into applications so that they behave like macro languages.

Metaprogramming languages

Metaprogramming is writing of programs that write or manipulate other programs (or themselves) as their data or that do part of the work that is otherwise done at run time during compile time. In many cases, this allows programmers to get more done in the same amount of time as they would take to write all the code manually.

* Curl
* Forth
* Lisp
* Maude
* Nemerle
* Python

Multiparadigm languages

Multiparadigm languages support more than one programming paradigm. They allow a program to use more than one programming style. The goal is to allow programmers to use the best tool for a job, admitting that no one paradigm solves all problems in the easiest or most efficient way.

* Ada (concurrent, distributed, generic (template metaprogramming), imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* ALF (functional, logic)
* APL (functional, imperative)
* BETA (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* C++ (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* ChucK (imperative, object-oriented, time-based, concurrent, on-the-fly)
* Common Lisp (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), aspect-oriented (user may add further paradigms, e.g., logic))
* Corn (concurrent, generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* Curl (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
* Curry (concurrent, functional, logic)
* D (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* Dylan (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
* ECMAScript (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based))
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript
o JScript
* Eiffel (imperative, object-oriented (class-based), generic)
* J (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* LabVIEW (dataflow, visual)
* Lasso (macro, object-oriented (prototype-based), procedural, scripting)
* Lava (object-oriented (class-based), visual)
* Leda (functional, imperative, logic, object-oriented (class-based))
* Lua (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based))
* Maple
* Metaobject protocols (object-oriented (class-based, prototype-based))
* Nemerle (functional, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, metaprogramming)
* Objective Caml (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* Oz (functional (evaluation: eager, lazy), logic, constraint, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), concurrent, distributed)
o Mozart Programming System (multiplatform Oz)
* Object Pascal (imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* Perl (imperative, functional (can't be purely functional), object-oriented, class-oriented, aspect-oriented (through modules))
* PHP (imperative, object-oriented)
* Pliant (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* Poplog (functional, imperative, logic)
* ppC++ (imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
* Prograph (dataflow, object-oriented (class-based), visual)
* Python (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
* REBOL (functional, object-oriented (prototype-based))
* ROOP (imperative, logic, object-oriented (class-based), rule-based)
* Ruby (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
* SISAL (concurrent, dataflow, functional)
* Spreadsheets (functional, visual)
* Tcl (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))

Numerical analysis

* Algae
* Seneca an Oberon variant

Non-English-based languages

See also: :Category:Non-English-based programming languages

Non-English-based programming languages do not use English keywords.

* ARLOGO - Arabic
* Chinese BASIC - Chinese
* Fjölnir - Icelandic
* HPL - Hebrew
* Lexico - Spanish
* Rapira - Russian
* Glagol - Russian
* var'aq - Klingon

Object-oriented class-based languages

Class-based Object-oriented programming languages support objects defined by their class. Class definitions include member data. Polymorphic functions parameterized by the class of some of their arguments are typically called methods.

In languages with single dispatch, classes typically also include method definitions. In languages with multiple dispatch, methods are defined by generic functions. There are exceptions where single dispatch methods are generic functions (e.g. Bigloo's object system).

Multiple dispatch

* Common Lisp
* Dylan
* Goo
* Cecil

Single dispatch

* Actor
* Ada 95 (multi-purpose language)
* BETA
* C++
* C#
* Chrome
* ChucK
* ColdFusion
* Corn
* Curl
* D
* Delphi
* ECMAScript (originally from Sun and Netscape)
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript
o JScript
o MDMscript
* Eiffel
o Sather
o Ubercode
* F-Script
* Fortran 2003
* Fortress
* J
* Java (closely related to C++, but with built-in garbage collection, removal of unsafe features and some advanced ones, compilation to universally runnable 'bytecode', protective sandbox for security -- originally from Sun Microsystems)
o Groovy
o Join Java
o X10
* Kite
* Lava
* Lua
* Modula-2 (data abstraction, information hiding, strong typing, full modularity -- from N Wirth)
o Modula-3 (added more object oriented features to Modula-2)
o Objective Modula-2 (Modula-2 with Smalltalk message passing, following the Objective-C object model)
* Moto
* Nemerle
* NetRexx
* Oberon-2 (full object orientation equivalence in an original, strongly typed, Wirthian manner)
* Object Pascal
* Object REXX
* Objective-C (a superset of C adding a Smalltalk derived object model and message passing syntax)
* Objective Caml
* Oz
o Mozart Programming System
* Perl 5
* PHP
* Pliant
* PowerBuilder
* ppC++
* Prograph
* Python (object oriented interpretive language)
* Revolution (programmer does not get to pick the objects)
* Ruby (object oriented interpretive language)
* Simula (the first object oriented language, from Norway)
* Smalltalk (pure object-orientation, originally from Xerox PARC)
o Bistro
o F-Script
o Little Smalltalk
o Squeak
o VisualAge
o VisualWorks
* SPIN
* SuperCollider
* VBScript (Microsoft Office 'macro scripting' language)
* Visual Basic
* Visual DataFlex
* Visual Foxpro
* Visual Prolog
* XOTcl

Object-oriented prototype-based languages

Prototype-based languages are object-oriented languages where the distinction between classes and instances have been removed:

* ABCL/1
* ABCL/R
* ABCL/R2
* ABCL/c plus
* ActionScript
* Agora
* Cecil
* CodeSimian
* ECMAScript
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript (first named Mocha, then LiveScript)
o JScript
* Etoys in Squeak
* Io
* Lisaac
* MOO
* NewtonScript
* Maple
* Obliq
* REBOL
* Self (the first prototype-based language, derived from Smalltalk)
* Slate
* TADS

Off-side rule languages

Off-side rule languages are those where blocks are formed, indicated, by their indentation.

* ISWIM, the abstract language that introduced the rule
* ABC, Python's parent
o Python
* Miranda, Haskell's parent
o Haskell
+ Curry
* Occam
* Pliant
* SPIN

Procedural languages

Procedural programming languages are based on the concept of the unit and scope (the data viewing range of an executable code statement). A procedural program is composed of one or more units or modules, either user coded or provided in a code library; each module is composed of one or more procedures, also called a function, routine, subroutine, or method, depending on the language. Examples of procedural languages include:

* Ada (multi-purpose language)
* ALGOL (extremely influential language design. The second high level language compiler.)
o SMALL Machine Algol Like Language
* BASIC (BASICs are innocent of most modularity in (especially) versions prior to about 1990)
* BLISS
* C
* C++ (C with objects + much else)
* C# (from Microsoft, a next generation Java/C++ like language)
* ChucK (C/Java-like syntax, with new syntax elements for time and parallelism)
* ColdFusion
* COBOL
* Component Pascal (an Oberon-2 variant)
* Curl
* D
* Delphi
* ECMAScript
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript (first named Mocha, then LiveScript)
o JScript
* Eiffel
* Fortran (better modularity in later Standards)
o F
* FPC Pascal (Pascal dialect)
* HyperTalk
* Java
o Groovy
o Join Java
* JOVIAL
* Lasso
* Modula-2 (fundamentally based on modules)
* Oberon-1 and Oberon-2 (improved, smaller, faster, safer follow-ons for Modula-2)
o Component Pascal
o Lagoona
o Seneca
* MATLAB
* M (more modular in its first release than a language of the time should have been; the standard has become still more modular since then)
* Nemerle
* Occam
* Pascal (successor to Algol60 and predecessor of Modula-2)
o Object Pascal
* Perl
* PL/C
* PL/I (large general purpose language, originally for IBM mainframes)
* Rapira
* VBScript
* Visual Basic
* Visual Foxpro

Reflective languages

Reflective languages let programs examine and possibly modify their high level structure at runtime. This is most common in high-level virtual machine programming languages like Smalltalk, and less common in lower-level programming languages like C. Languages and platforms supporting reflection:

* Aspect-oriented
* Befunge
* ChucK
* CodeSimian
* Curl
* ECMAScript
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript
o JScript
* Eiffel
* Forth
* Java
o Java Virtual Machine
o Groovy
o Join Java
o X10
* Maple
* Lisp
o Common Lisp
o Dylan
o Logo
o Scheme
* Lua
* Maude system
* .NET Common Language Runtime
* Objective-C
* Objective Modula-2
* Perl
* PHP
* Pico
* Pliant
* Poplog
o POP-11
* Prolog
* Python
* REBOL
* Ruby
* Smalltalk (pure object-orientation, originally from Xerox PARC)
o Bistro
o F-Script
o Little Smalltalk
o Self
o Squeak
o VisualAge
o VisualWorks
* Snobol
* Tcl
o XOTcl

Rule-based languages

Rule-based languages instantiate rules when activated by conditions in a set of data. Of all possible activations, some set will be selected and the statements belonging to those rules will be executed. Examples of rule-based languages include:

* Clips
* Constraint Handling Rules
* Jess
* OPS5
* Prolog

Scripting languages

"Scripting language" has two apparently different, but in fact similar meanings. In a traditional sense, scripting languages are designed to automate frequently used tasks that usually involve calling or passing commands to external programs. Many complex application programs allow users to implement custom functions by providing them with built-in languages. Those which are of interpretive type, are often called scripting languages.

More recently many of these applications have chosen to "build in" traditional scripting languages, such as Perl or Visual Basic, but there are quite a few "native" scripting languages still in use. Many scripting languages are compiled to bytecode and then this (usually) platform independent bytecode is run through a virtual machine (compare to Java).

* AWK
* AppleScript
* BeanShell
* Ch (Embeddable C/C++ interpreter)
* CLIST
* ColdFusion
* ECMAScript
o ActionScript
o DMDScript
o E4X
o JavaScript (first named Mocha, then LiveScript)
o JScript
* EXEC
* EXEC 2
* F-Script
* Frink
* Game Maker Language (GML)
* ICI
* Io
* JASS
* Java
o Groovy
o Join Java
* Lua
* MAXScript
* MEL
* Mondrian
* Perl
* PHP (intended for Web servers)
* Python
* REXX
* Ruby
* Sed
* Tcl
* TorqueScript
* Revolution
* VBScript
* Windows PowerShell (Microsoft .NET-based CLI)
* Many shell command languages such as the UNIX shell or DCL on VMS have powerful scripting capabilities.

Stack-based languages

See also: :Category:Stack-oriented programming languages

Stack-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the stack data structure.

* colorForth
* Forth
* Factor
* Poplog via its implementation language POP-11
* PostScript
* RPL
* Urq

Synchronous languages

See also: :Category:Synchronous programming languages

Synchronous programming languages are optimized for programming reactive systems, systems that are often interrupted and must respond quickly. Many such systems are also called realtime systems, and are found often in embedded uses. Examples:

* Argos
* Averest
* Esterel
* LEA
* Lustre
* Signal
* SyncCharts

Syntax handling languages

* GNU bison (FSF's version of Yacc)
* GNU Flex (FSF's version of Lex)
* Lex (Lexical analysis, from Bell Labs)
* M4
* yacc (yet another compiler compiler, from Bell Labs)
* javacc
* Coco/R (EBNF with semantics)

Visual languages

See also: :Category:Visual programming languages

Visual programming languages let users specify programs in a two-(or more)-dimensional way, instead of as one-dimensional text strings, via graphic layouts of various types.

* CODE
* Eiffel (program design from BON or UML diagrams, with back-and-forth facilities (round-trip engineering) through EiffelStudio)
* Fabrik
* Hyperpascal
* LabVIEW
* Lava
* Limnor
* Mindscript — software visualization and development environment, open source
* Max
* Pict
* Prograph
* Pure Data
* Quartz Composer
* Simulink
* Spreadsheets
* Subtext
* Tinkertoy
* VEE
* VisSim
* VVVV

Some dataflow languages are also visual languages.

Wirth languages

Computer scientist Niklaus Wirth designed and implemented several influential languages.

* Algol W
* Modula
* Modula-2 (and Modula 3, etc. variants)
o Obliq Modula 3 variant
* Oberon (Oberon and Oberon-2)
o Component Pascal
o Lagoona
o Seneca
* Pascal
o Object Pascal (original name for Borland Delphi language)

XML-based languages

These are languages based on or that operate on XML. Although the big-boy equivalents of Oracle/PostgreSQL/MSSQL don't yet exist for XML, there are languages to navigate through it and its more tree-oriented structure.

* ECMAScript E4X
* Jelly
* XPath
* XQuery
* XSLT
* Cω

No comments: